Cardiac and pulmonary auscultation

Auscultation of the chest can provide further valuable information in diagnosing heart failure. It’s important to listen to both heart and lung sounds.

  • Auscultation of the heart
    • Cardiac arrhythmias—irregular, tachycardia, or bradycardia
    • Heart murmurs—intensity and location should be considered but not overemphasised
    • Extra heart sounds—gallops, clicks
  • Auscultation of the lungs
    • Normal sounds
    • Abnormal—crackles and wheezes